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5. , ‘The effects of combined internal and external exhaust gas recirculation on gasoline controlled auto-ignition’, SAE paper 2005-01-0133, 2005. 6. , ‘Active thermoatmosphere combustion (ATAC) – A new combustion process for internal combustion engines’, SAE paper 790507, 1979. Overview of CAI/HCCI gasoline engines 41 7. , ‘Improving the exhaust emissions of two-stroke engines by applying the activated radical combustion’, SAE paper 960742, 1996. 8. M. , ‘Compression-ignited homogeneous charge combustion’, SAE paper 830264, 1983.
As a result, CI engines boast higher engine efficiency than SI engines. In contrast, the new combustion mode is the process in which a premixed and highly diluted or lean air/fuel mixture is auto-ignited and burned simultaneously across the combustion chamber. As the burning takes place simultaneously, the compression effect on the burned gases is absent and hence the maximum localised high combustion temperature region is removed. More importantly, the overall combustion temperature is significantly reduced by the presence of excess air or diluents (exhaust gases recycled or trapped within the cylinder).
11, where burnt gases of the same temperature as air at 600K are used in replacement of part of the air in the cylinder. It is noted that although auto-ignition could be achieved at an EGR level up to 70% (Fig. 10), incomplete combustion started to appear after about 60% EGR at the current operating condition. Hence, results in Fig. 10 and Fig. 11 are limited to 60%. Beyond 70% EGR, auto-ignition could not take place. It can be seen that the overall effect of cooled exhaust gases on the CAI combustion process is to retard the AI timing, to lengthen the combustion duration, and to reduce the (dp/dt)max value.