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Download A History of Land Use in Mongolia: The Thirteenth Century to by Elizabeth Endicott PDF

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By Elizabeth Endicott

An illustrated historical past of the pastoral nomadic lifestyle in Mongolia, this booklet examines the numerous demanding situations that Mongolian herders proceed to stand within the fight over ordinary assets within the post-socialist loose industry period.

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Extra info for A History of Land Use in Mongolia: The Thirteenth Century to the Present

Sample text

The Mongols who ruled China, however, did return to the steppes of Mongolia after the dynasty E a r ly H i s t o ry 49 that they ruled (the Yuan Dynasty, 1271–1272) collapsed during a wave of rebellions in the 1360s. During the course of the Yuan Dynasty, Mongolian rulers, soldiers, and officials within China faced a variety of cultural and social influences in the form of Confucian ritual, Chinese Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, and Daoism. As both Chinese and Western observers (including Marco Polo, the Venetian merchant who visited Khubilai Khan’s court) have noted, the Mongols continued to adhere to their own shamanist rituals and beliefs.

11 Spring and autumn encampments are typically used for a month or so, while winter and summer sites are longer term. Because the Khangai Mountain region of Mongolia has reliable pastures and water, four migrations suffice, but in drier areas of the country, like the Gobi, more numerous migrations are common. 12 Simukov’s observations are highly suggestive of the ways in which the natural environment may shape the structure of family and community life in Mongolian society. The scarcity of feed for herd animals in the Gobi, noted Simukov, forces the population to spread out in as scattered a fashion as possible.

The processing and marketing of the dairy, hide, wool, cashmere, and other products of Mongolia’s herds could certainly benefit from major increases in Mongolian governmental and international investment. 44 Construction of local milk processing enterprises would also allow herders to sell locally rather than lose value through middlemen. 45 It is the country’s infrastructure— roads, factories for processing dairy, cashmere, wool products, and so on—that is at fault, not the products of the herders.

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