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By John K. Tien
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Extra resources for Alloy and Microstructural Design
In addition to the duplex a + β microstructures, a bimodal duplex microstructure can be produced by solution-treating and aging or du plex annealing alloys such as Ti-6A1-4V or Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn. The mi crostructure of solution-treated and aged samples consists of primary a particles from 5 to 25 μτη in diameter and regions containing very fine platelets of hexagonal martensite (essentially a phase) and small βphase precipitates. An example of this microstructure is shown in Fig. 21. This microstructural condition is —274 M N / m (—40 ksi) stronger than the simple a + β structure shown in Fig.
The result for Al-4% Cu is probably more relevant to commercial alloys. 2 2 A l - C u - M g : These alloys, of which 2014 and 2024 are examples, exhibit a single or duplex precipitation sequence depending on the Cu:Mg ratio (Silcock, 1960-1961). 2:1 ratio, de composition proceeds by a single sequence as follows: GPB zones -> S' -> S where GPB zones are spherical and rich in Mg and Cu, and S' is the S phase (Al CuMg) distorted presumably because it is coherent or semico herent. In alloys that have a 7:1 C u - M g ratio, a duplex sequence is ob served (Silcock, 1960-1961); the first consists of that described above and the second consists of the sequence described earlier for binary Al-Cu alloys.
Cations through an alloy with a large volume fraction of precipitates than one with a small volume fraction of precipitates, because in the former case more APB per unit length must be produced by the leading dislocation. For a specific particle size, it can also be seen that the stress required for particle looping increases with increasing volume percent. The effects of volume fraction and particle size on yield stress of an alloy strengthened by coherent particles are summarized in Fig. 11. d.