Download Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen, Third Edition by Michael Frank Hordeski PDF
By Michael Frank Hordeski
Revised and up-to-date, Alternative Fuels addresses some of the components affecting our power use, together with the supply and desirability of assorted fuels—especially using hydrogen. This re-creation covers new hydrogen advancements in expertise, oil provides and new drilling innovations, most recent details on hydrogen street initiatives, breakthroughs in gasoline telephone expertise and extremely low emissions in transportation, the most recent information on rising oil markets, strength reserves, and carbon dioxide raises.
Also integrated is fabric on strength coverage, gasoline provide developments, substitute situations, strength usage, sustainable strength, expense research, gas escalation, strength and improvement, regulatory concerns, boundaries to implementation, conversion structures, garage structures, thermodynamic potency, gas chain potency, life-cycle potency, know-how concerns extracting, refining, air emission concerns, security, typical gasoline hydrogen fuel, methanol, ethanol, steam reforming and gas cells.
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Additional info for Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen, Third Edition
Other substances in crude oil include sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen, and various metals. 5% by weight. It is rarely present as elemental sulphur but usually occurs in compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H 2S) and organic sulphur compounds. Sulphur and sulphur compounds are corrosive, emit a characteristic sulphur odor, and impede combustion. Modern refining methods eliminate most of the sulphur in crude oils. In some gas pools with a high sulphur content, the sulphur is extracted at a profit. Generally, crudes of a high specific gravity contain more sulphur than others.
The Center for Energy, Environmental and Economic Systems Analysis at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago estimates that building a hydrogen economy would take more than $500 billion. Oil companies are not willing to invest in production and distribution facilities for hydrogen fueling until there are enough hydrogen cars on the road. Automakers will not produce large numbers of hydrogen cars until drivers have somewhere to fill them up. S. would need to offer hydrogen before fuel cells could become viable as vehicle power.
In the 1960s about a quarter of the gas used in the United States was pumped each summer into storage pools and unused wells to be stored until the cold weather. NATURAL GAS In the United States, natural gas has replaced manufactured gas because of improved means of transportation from remote areas. S. and was the sixth largest industry in terms of investment. The output in 1962 reached an estimated value of over $2 billion, and reserves had already been discovered to satisfy 20 years of consumption at the 1963 rate.