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By Takayoshi Higuchi

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1974). Protoplasma 80, 129-147. Côté, W. Α . (1967). " W o o d Ultrastructure. " Washing­ ton U n i v . Press, Seattle and L o n d o n . Côté, W. A . (1977). In " R e c e n t A d v a n c e s in Phytochemistry" (F. A. L o e w u s and V. C. R u n e c k l e s , e d s . ) , Vol. X I , pp. 1-44. Plenum, N e w York. Côté, W. A . ) (1980). "Papermaking F i b e r s , " pp. 22, 24, 25, 31. Syracuse Univ. Press, Syracuse, N e w York. Côté, W. Α . , and D a y , A . C. (1962). Tappi 45, 9 0 6 - 9 1 0 . Côté, W.

1. STRUCTURE OF W O O D 35 Fig. 2 8 . Transmission electron micrograph of radial surface replica from Tsuga cana­ densis, showing a bordered pit membrane in earlywood tracheid. N o t e the openings in the margo (ma) and the disk-like torus (to). From Côté (1977). The torus of softwood tracheids is usually convex lens-shaped in cross section and fairly circular in outline. The torus is usually thickened by the deposition of well-oriented cellulose microfibrils in addition to the pri­ mary wall microfibrils, and the outline is irregularly extended over the margo in some species.

There is no torus in the center of the pit membrane, and no openings can be seen even at high magnification with TEM. Radiating microfibrils are recognized on the tracheid lumen surface of the pit membrane. On the ray parenchyma cell side of the pit membrane, four successive layers with different tex­ tures are present, including several lamellae alternating in their criss­ crossed microfibril orientations. The membrane structure between tra­ cheids and axial parenchyma cells is similar to that of the cross-field pits of ray parenchyma cells, except for transversely oriented microfibrils in the Pi layer, as shown in Fig.

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