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By J. J. Moore

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This tendency is shown by the low ionisation energies of the elements which are related to the large size of the atoms. These metals, therefore, are very powerful reducing agents combining + vigorously with non-metals to produce ionic compounds with M cations by group I 2+ and M by group II. Increasing reactivity occurs in each group with increase in mass and size as will be noted from the decreasing ionisation energies and electronegativity values. Group I metals are more reactive than those in group II and hence the heavier members of group I are the most reactive of all metals.

I) 2 Titanium: 3d 4s 2 The + 4 compounds are the most stable; the + 2 and +3 compounds are less stable and are reducing agents. Titanium ( I V ) oxide ( T i 0 2 ) occurs in nature as rutile. It is a white, stable, insoluble solid and is amphoteric and as such imparts a certain corrosion resistance to titanium in oxidising conditions. 2). The chloride is a colourless covalent liquid which is readily hydrolysed producing T i 0 2 and which can be easily reduced with a group I or II metal (Na, Mg) to extract it.

4. tlf it is necessary to reverse an equation, the sign of AH must also be reversed according to Laplace's law which states that the quantity of heat which must be supplied to decompose a substance into its elements is equal to the heat evolved when that compound is formed from its elements. e. 2 Energy diagram for calculation of the standard enthalpy change of formation of methane Alternatively this may be represented by a simple energy diagram (Fig. 2). From Fig. 2 we see that AH^j = AH^ 4- = -393 4- 2 ( - 2 8 7 ) - ( - 8 9 0 ) k J m o l = 2AH^l -79kJmol~ _1 1 As the formation of methane is an exothermic process its elements (C -I- 2 H 2 ) are shown at a higher energy level than the resulting compound.

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