Download Contested Medicine: Cancer Research and the Military by Gerald Kutcher PDF
By Gerald Kutcher
Within the 1960s University of Cincinnati radiologist Eugene Saenger infamously carried out human experiments on sufferers with complicated melanoma to envision how overall physique radiation may possibly deal with the affliction. yet, lower than agreement with the dep. of safeguard, Saenger extensively utilized those self same sufferers as proxies for squaddies to reply to questions on wrestle effectiveness on a nuclear battlefield. utilizing the Saenger case as a way to re-examine chilly struggle clinical trials, Contested medication examines the inherent tensions on the middle of scientific reviews of the time. Emphasizing the deeply intertwined and at the same time supportive dating among melanoma treatment with radiation and army medication, Gerald Kutcher explores post–World warfare II melanoma trials, the efforts of the govt. to control medical ethics, and the $64000 position of army investigations within the improvement of a good therapy for formative years leukemia. while so much histories of human experimentation pass judgement on examine similar to Saenger’s opposed to idealized practices, Contested medication eschews such an technique and considers why Saenger’s friends and later critics had a lot hassle attaining an unambiguous moral review. Kutcher’s enticing research deals an method of scientific ethics and study imperatives that lays naked a few of the conflicts and tensions of the postwar interval.
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11 It might at ﬁrst seem surprising that Zubrod’s presentation on the method of randomized trials did not lead to protracted internal battles but was, instead, readily received. 12 Why, then, was Zubrod’s suggestion taken up so readily at the NCI? In fact, why was there so much enthusiasm for clinical trials in the postwar period? Historians and sociologists have addressed this question in various publications. While their answers differ in details, they generally suggest that researchers took up clinical trials as a political strategy.
71. Thompson, “Moral Economy,” 217. 2 The Production of Trustworthy Knowledge A refreshingly unstructured pronouncement emerged from some members of the French Academy of Political and Moral Sciences. Discussing the Nazi experiments they suggested that no written law can provide a strict ruling that knowledge gained for science constitutes the ultimate justiﬁcation, but that the responsible, experienced, prudent scientist—who is the only type of experimentalist to be tolerated—will draw his own limit.
106. 29. Bloor, Knowledge and Social Imagery, 175–79. 30. Allan Brandt points out that, for some critics, research is ethical if successful and unethical if a failure (“Polio, Politics, Publicity,” 452). 31. Stephens’s Treatment is an exception. Stephens has written movingly about the Cincinnati patients, although her discussion of Maude Jacobs differs from mine. PART I ................................................................................................ RESEARCH IMPERATIVES AND CLINICAL ETHICS 1 Cancer Clinical Trials Termites build their obscure galleries with a mixture of mud and their own droppings; scientists build their enlightened networks by giving the outside the same paper form as that of their instruments inside.