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By Dan Hough (auth.)
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Extra info for Corruption, Anti-Corruption and Governance
Furthermore, if one did the same calculation for the ‘voice and accountability’ indicator then 86 countries would rank above the G20 average. Conversely, a whole host of countries have better governance scores across a number of indicators than do Italy and Greece. 54 In short, it is just the type of data that should offer useful pointers for seeking to help the interested observer understand the governance challenges that each and every country faces. The detailed, data-heavy statistical analysis provided by scholars linked to the WGI project subsequently prompts, perhaps curiously, the authors to make pretty similar claims to those who adopt much more interpretist approaches to analysing when and why corruption Governance Regimes and the Fight against Corruption 43 occurs (and even what it actually is).
However, the default positions of many IMF scholars – the more the state does, the more likely it is to foster corrupt activity – do come through when one scratches under the surface. Christian Schiller, then Deputy Division Chief in the IMF’s Fiscal Affairs Department, has recommended speciﬁc sets of measures – liberalising trade systems, decontrolling prices, broadening the scope of marketisation – that are intended both to improve the quality of governance but also ﬁght corruption. 71 When many of those active and inﬂuential within the IMF develop remedies from the philosophical 28 Corruption, Anti-Corruption and Governance and ideological starting points of the public choice school then it is not surprising that the policy advice that the organisation gives is unlikely to actually lead – in a sustained and systematic ways – to reductions in corruption levels.
The dimensions are:33 1. Voice and Accountability – This captures perceptions of the extent to which a country’s citizens are able to participate in selecting the government, how free they are to express their own feelings and attitudes in public, to what extent freedom of association is permitted and ﬁnally how free and open the media is. 2. Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism – This dimensions aims to capture perceptions of the likelihood that a government will be destabilised or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means.