Storage Retrieval

Download Data and Databases. Concepts in Practice by Zerubavel PDF

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By Zerubavel

"Days, months, and years got to us by means of nature, yet we invented the week for ourselves. there's not anything inevitable a few seven-day cycle, or approximately the other type of week; it represents an arbitrary rhythm imposed on our actions, unrelated to something within the normal order. yet the place the week exists—and there were many cultures the place it doesn't—it is so deeply embedded in our adventure that we not often query its rightness, or ponder it as a man-made conference; for many folks it's a topic of 'second nature.'

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It is far too easy for a beginner SQL programmer to think that a table is a file, a row is a record, and a column is a field. This is not true at all. A table can exist only within a database schema, where it is related to the other tables and schema objects. A file exists in its own right and has no relationship to another file as far as the file system is concerned. A file is passive storage whose structure is defined by the program that reads it. That is, I can read the same file in, say, Fortran several different ways in different programs by using different FORMAT statements.

These functions take the value of the column(s) used in the search and convert them into a number that maps into an address in physical data storage. ), which has the actual disk address in it. The disk drive can then be positioned directly to that physical address and read the data. Since doing calculations inside the main processor is many orders of magnitude faster than reading a disk drive, hashing is the fastest possible access method for a single row in a table. The trade-off is “speed for space,” as it often is in computing.

The system will maintain the sorted order in a primary index, but the table itself might be stored in any order. To use the index to obtain a row in the indexed base table, the search engine finds the key value(s) in the first field of the index that match the search value(s), then uses the pointer in the second field to read the physical location where the corresponding row is located. - 55 - Since the index is smaller than the original table and it is in sorted order, searching it is fairly quick and easy compared to reading the entire table sequentially.

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