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This Fig. 5. 1 MPa, T, = 350 K; Va = const). Subscripts: I-a = 1 . 4 , 2-atp t p =: 2 and k = =. 3ancl k = 1 . 3 is attributed to the fact that with an increase in p the amount of heat withdrawn by the heat sink increases and, thus, the amount of heat converted into mechanical work decreases. Therefore, the maximum value of the thermal efficiency is attainable a t a minimum amount of heat added. This may be the case under real conditions, when an engine is idling. 3-dash lines). Two curves q , are computed and plotted a t p = 2 and p = 3 and, therefore, a t a varying amount of added heat Q, for each value of compression ratio, and two curves are plotted a t the same amount of added heat (Q, = 80 MJ/kmole) and, therefore, a t varying values of preexpansion.
Is represented by an isochore (straight line ce"z in Fig. 5) and in the Fig. 6. Pressure variation during the combustion process in a diesel engine compression-ignition engines a t V constant and p constant, e. g. follows the combined cycle (straight lines cc"z' and z'z in Fig. 6). The objective of combustion process computations is to determine the temperature and pressure a t the end of visible combustion (points z and 2,) plus volume V , for a diesel engine. 60 PART ONE. WORKING PROCESSES AND CHARACTERISTICS The gas temperature T, at the end of visible combustion is determined on the basis of the First Law of thermodynamics according dL.
2. At small compression ratios and considerable amount of heat added, there is no constant-pressure cycle a t all, as p cannot exceed E . For example, a t Q, = 80 MJikmole (see Fig. 5) a cycle may exist only a t E > 5. 3. 3 causes a material decrease in t,he thermal efficiency and mean pressure of the cycle. Thus, ac,cording t,o the computed dat,a, heat losses grow from 41 % to 52% a t e = 20 and Q, = 80 MJ/kmole (see the curves q t s and q r l in Fig. 5) and t,he mean pressure decreases by 20%.