Human Rights

Download Dictionary of Human Rights, A by David Robertson PDF

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By David Robertson

This reference paintings displays the growing to be overseas obstacle over human rights. It presents reasons of the terminology, concerns, organisations and legislation surrounding this emotive topic. A Dictionary of Human Rights good points: * over two hundred transparent and concise mini-essays * alphabetical association for ease of use This ebook is a crucial resource for someone attracted to or hooked up with human rights concerns.

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Additional resources for Dictionary of Human Rights, A

Example text

Although state monopoly of broadcasting, which was the starting position in most states, might require a considerable public faith in the impartiality of such systems, it satisfied most critics for some time. The theoretical constitutional law problems became intense in many countries, however, when private enterprise broadcasting became legal, because the economics of broadcasting are very different from those of newspaper printing. Far from it being the case that nearly any group had a roughly equal chance of airing its view, the opposite held: private dominance of broadcasting became the norm, with very few competing voices.

Thus the fact that all the evidence seems to point towards guilt will not suffice for a conviction if there is any doubt, beyond the merely fanciful, that there is an innocent explanation. Civil law cases instead depend on the ‘balance of probabilities’ test, whereby it is suggested that given all the evidence the defendant should be held liable. The margin of balance can be varied; in some cases a simple 51 to 49 per cent probability may be acceptable, whereas if the consequences are at all severe, a tribunal is likely to insist on a much greater probability, but one that could still not be ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ before finding for the plaintiff.

In the Southern states effective discrimination continued because of the nature of school catchment areas, but this pattern was even more important in northern states where there had never been legal racial restrictions on entrance to individual schools. Furthermore, the pattern of residential segregation became more intense as blacks moved to the urban centres of northern states and whites moved out into the suburbs. By the late 1960s, when federal action to remove segregation became effective with the implementation of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the Brown decision was clearly not having the desired effect.

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