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By Ann Marie Clark

A small crew based Amnesty foreign in 1961 to translate human rights rules into motion. Diplomacy of Conscience offers a wealthy account of the way the association pioneered a mixture of well known strain and specialist wisdom to increase international human rights. To an volume unequalled through predecessors and copied through successors, Amnesty overseas has hired around the world exposure campaigns in line with fact-finding and ethical strain to induce governments to enhance human rights practices. much less renowned is Amnesty International's major influence on foreign legislation. It has helped forge the overseas community's repertoire of reliable responses to the main serious human rights violations, supplementing ethical situation with services and conceptual vision.

Diplomacy of Conscience strains Amnesty International's efforts to reinforce either renowned human rights know-how and overseas legislations opposed to torture, disappearances, and political killings. Drawing on fundamental interviews and archival learn, Ann Marie Clark posits that Amnesty International's strenuously cultivated objectivity gave the crowd political independence and allowed it to be serious of all governments violating human rights. Its potential to enquire abuses and interpret them based on overseas criteria helped it foster consistency and coherence in new human rights law.

Generalizing from this research, Clark builds a idea of the self sustaining position of nongovernmental actors within the emergence of overseas norms pitting ethical imperatives opposed to kingdom sovereignty. Her paintings is of considerable ancient and theoretical relevance to these drawn to how norms take form in foreign society, in addition to someone learning the expanding visibility of nongovernmental corporations at the overseas scene.

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Extra info for Diplomacy of Conscience: Amnesty International and Changing Human Rights Norms

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However, for AI leaders and members, familiarity with individual cases of political imprisonment drove home the need for stronger, preventative international norms concerning prisoner treatment. The frequency of torture in such cases was particularly troubling. AI recognized the need to try to shape state behavior at a general level, through norms, as well as in specific cases. To that end, the organization devised a series of practical actions to promote the emergence of new norms to prohibit the use of torture by governments.

The fact that, in a repressive society, those most aware of the need for protection—domestic human rights advocates and monitors, for example—are themselves likely to be targets of repression complicates the generalization process that is necessary for consensus about the need for human rights norms. State secrecy inhibits documentation of patterns of human rights abuses. The process of gathering and interpreting facts about human rights violations, as assisted by international nongovernmental organizations, enables the categorization and summary of state behavior with regard to human rights principles from outside the societies where abuses may be taking place.

Principled norms of international human rights express obligations for states that reflect the rights due to human beings. In the present international system, the idea of human rights is rooted in the Western liberal conception of individual human dignity. This idea is the object of constant critique by those who would like to diminish it in some respect as well as by those who would like to expand it. A. Hart’s understanding of law,38 I assume that legal standards of human rights can be understood as referents for the emergence of shared social understandings about human rights in international society.

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