Download Efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by Yi-Lu Chang PDF
By Yi-Lu Chang
Following 20 years of severe examine globally, the natural light-emitting diode (OLED) has progressively emerged because the final demonstrate know-how of selection for the arriving a long time. transportable lively matrix OLED screens have already turn into frequent, or even large-sized ultra-high definition 4K TVs are being industrially produced. extra unique purposes comparable to wearable screens were commercialized lately. With the burgeoning luck in monitors, researchers are actively bringing the expertise ahead into the intriguing solid-state lighting fixtures marketplace.
This ebook offers the data wanted for college kids and researchers from different disciplines to appreciate the underlying ideas in OLED expertise. It starts with a quick heritage and primary operating ideas of OLEDs. After introducing the basics, it discusses extra effective OLED designs, in addition to complicated suggestions to augment the functionality. The textual content covers intimately very important parts reminiscent of top-emission, p- and n-type doping, machine balance, mild extraction, and stacked white OLEDs. It additionally throws mild at the present perform and significant components of concentration within the close to future.
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Extra info for Efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
In this chapter, we will discuss a number of advanced designs that can achieve this goal. First we will present a design involving triplet exciton harvesting and efficient energy transfer using phosphorescent emitters only. Additionally, it is known that triplet excitons in the host tend to spur various quenching processes either with themselves or with charged species, thereby accelerating device degradation. It is therefore beneficial to convert the bulk of the generated triplets into singlets in the device during operation by means of triplet to singlet up-conversion through reverse intersystem crossing (RISC).
On the basis of the exciplex cohost system shown in Fig. 1% and a very high efficacy of 124 lm/W as shown in Fig. 8%, which suggests a very small efficiency rolloff. This remains among the best-performance PHOLEDs to date in open literature. Shin et al. 60 An additional advantage of this design is the fact that no extra layer of new material for carrier blocking or exciton confinement purposes is needed, which simplifies the fabrication process. 13 Device efficiency from an exciplex-forming cohost system shown in Fig.
Dashed and dotted arrows represent nonradiative energy transitions and solid arrows represent radiative energy transitions. EHost, EA, ED, and SO represent the energy levels of the host, acceptor, donor, and ground state, respectively. χA, χD, and hD–A are as defined for Eq. 1 in the text. 2 (a) Device structure utilizing interzone energy transfer for a greenish-yellow OLED. (b) Energy transfer efficiency with thickness of the greenish-yellow EML with corresponding EL spectra shown in (c). Reproduced with permission from Ref.