Download Electrical Transmission Systems and Smart Grids: Selected by Miroslav M. Begovic (auth.), Miroslav M. Begovic (eds.) PDF
By Miroslav M. Begovic (auth.), Miroslav M. Begovic (eds.)
Electric transmission networks are one of the biggest human-made engineering structures: for instance, the transmission community within the usa covers over 300,000 km of traces and is served via 500 businesses (electric utilities). In sharp distinction to the very incremental advancements of the final century, transmission and regulate applied sciences skilled an immense step forward at the start of the 21st century. The quick progress of latest strength iteration applied sciences (renewables), major advances in details processing utilized to method tracking, making plans, operation, keep an eye on, and defense, radical alterations in distribution networks, and key shifts in finish consumer habit (advanced metering and keep an eye on of call for reaction) have mixed to supply the fashionable built-in electric infrastructure ordinarily known as the clever grid.
Featuring cutting-edge, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability technology and Technology, this ebook presents an in depth advent to pick key issues which span strength expertise, engineering, and concrete making plans. around the globe specialists speak about the mixing of electrical power infrastructure into the wider severe infrastructures of the fashionable international and their a variety of interdependencies. committed chapters disguise particular subject matters starting from underground transmission and distribution, to strength and water interdependence, and their implications for city parts. assurance additionally contains the most important function of latest coverage tasks as catalysts of change.
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Extra info for Electrical Transmission Systems and Smart Grids: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology
Ungrounded systems are usually employed at the distribution level and are originated from delta-connected power transformers. Equipment grounding refers to the system of electric conductors (grounding conductor and ground buses) by which all non-current-carrying metallic structures within an industrial plant are interconnected and grounded. The main purposes of equipment grounding are: • To maintain low potential difference between metallic structures or parts, minimizing the possibility of electric shocks to personnel in the area • To contribute to adequate protective device performance of the electric system, and safety of personnel and equipment • To avoid fires from volatile materials and the ignition of gases in combustible atmospheres by providing an effective electric conductor system for the flow of ground-fault currents and lightning and static discharges to eliminate arcing and other thermal distress in electrical equipment Substation grounding systems are thoroughly engineered.
DA logic sees loss of voltage beyond CB11 (CB at lockout) and saw fault current through CB11 and SW1, so it recognizes that the line beyond (not before) SW1 is permanently faulted. 5. Fault is isolated by DA logic, sending open command to SW1. 6. DA logic recognizes line upstream of SW1 is good (fault current sensed at two devices), and closes CB11, heating up line to source side of open SW1. Power is now restored to 50% of customers. 7. DA will not close into a faulted line, so the alternate source tie point (open point of SW2) remains open (Figs.
However, it is typical for a distribution substation to be supplied by two or more supply lines to increase reliability of the power supply in case one supply line is disconnected. A supply line can be an overhead line or an underground feeder, depending on the location of the substation, with underground cable lines mostly in urban areas and overhead lines in rural areas and suburbs. Supply lines are connected to the substation via highvoltage disconnecting switches in order to isolate lines from substation to perform maintenance or repair work.