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By Robert A. Meyers
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Additional info for Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, Optics
Ed. (1994). “Selected Papers on Electron Optics,” SPIE Milestones Series, Vol. 94. Humphries, S. (1986). ” (1990). “Charged Particle Beams,” Wiley-Interscience, New York and Chichester. Lawson, J. D. (1988). “The Physics of Charged-Particle Beams,” Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford. Lencov´a, B. (1997). Electrostatic Lenses. In “Handbook of Charged Particle Optics” (J. ), pp. 177–221, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. P1: FLV 2nd Revised Pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology EN002-95 May 19, 2001 20:57 696 Livingood, J.
These lenses may be fabricated by diamond turning, gray level masking, or direct laser writing lithography, depending on the feature size and aspect ratio. Alternatively, the continuous phase profile may be approximated by a discrete binary or multilevel profile as shown in Fig. 12(a). Fabrication of multilevel diffractive lenses is accomplished via photolithography employing accurately placed masks and sequential lithographic and etching steps. Figure 12(b) illustrates schematically the operation of a diffractive lens using a ray approach.
By connecting these with the zero-order effective index expressions (Eqs. (29) and (30)) with n L = n C and n H = n S , an approximate grating fill factor required for antireflection is obtained as P1: GPJ/GLQ P2: FJU Final Pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology EN004I-174 June 8, 2001 17:22 434 Diffractive Optical Components FIGURE 13 Applications of subwavelength gratings: (a) antireflection surface, (b) retardation plate, (c) polarizing beam splitter, (d) diffractive lens, (e) blazed grating, and (f) wavelength-selective reflector (filter).