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By R. Bernhardt

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Extra info for Encyclopedia of public international law 7: history of International Law, Foundations and Principles of International Law, Sources of International Law, Law of Treaties: Instalment 7

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The United States had suggested to the delegates the securing of religious freedom in the entire Balkan region. The Treaty of Bucharest does not mention it, but the three separate treaties with Turkey protected the Muslim - minorities in the ceded territories and the Bulgarian minority in Turkey. In an exchange of - notes in July/August 1913, Romania obtained protection of the schools and churches of the Kutzo-Vlachs in the other Balkan States. The same three treaties also state expressly that the inhabitants were to acquire the - nationality of the new sovereign (until then this had been self-evident) and that they could opt for Turkish nationality (- Option of Nationality) if leaving the Balkans.

Albania had been destined to become a separate political unity as far back as 1900/1901 by an understanding between Austria and Italy. The Tsar consented to this plan on a visit to the King of Italy in October 1909. But in 1913 their interests diverged and Montenegro, Serbia and Greece laid claims to parts of Albania. Serbia, now protected by Russia, wanted an outlet to the Adriatic, or at least a ~ free port with a secure railway connection; Austria and Italy were strictly opposed to such a development.

Finally, as in the negotiations on the revision of the 1585 Convention, the party requesting revision or termination of the treaty linked the clausula argument to reasons of a, more openly political character and, in this case, also to assertions of minor breaches of the Treaty by some of the other parties, entitling Russia to its termination. In the end, the principle of the sanctity of treaties on which the 1856 international quasi-order rested was reaffirmed with Russian concurrence, and the CLAUSULA REBUS SIC STANTIBUS process of revision by agreement of all parties was completed by the 1871 Revision Treaty.

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