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Download Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa (2nd by Neil Caplan, Philip Mattar, Charles E. Butterworth, Michael PDF

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By Neil Caplan, Philip Mattar, Charles E. Butterworth, Michael R. Fischbach, Eric Hooglund, Laurie King-Irani, John Ruedy

The second one variation of this encyclopedia (four-volume set, 2004) covers the fashionable heritage of the center East and North Africa, with significant sections on Colonialism and Imperialism, the area Wars, the Israeli-Palestinian clash, and the United countries involvement within the quarter.

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Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990. Findley, Carter V. Bureaucratic Reform in the Ottoman Empire: The Sublime Porte, 1789–1922. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980. Gershoni, Israel; Erdan, Hakam; and Woköck, Ursula, eds. Histories of the Modern Middle East: New Directions. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002. Goffman, Daniel. The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe. , and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey, 3d edition.

His concept of reform was improvement of finances, infrastructure, administration, and education, not a transition to democracy. Abdülhamit was more financially adept than his predecessors. Upon taking power, he inherited the debts that had led the empire into bankruptcy under Abdülaziz. He persuaded the European bankers to accept partial payment, so nearly half of the Ottoman debt was forgiven (the Decree of Muharram, 1881). The price, however, was the loss of financial independence. Valuable sources of state revenue (taxes on silk, fishing, alcoholic spirits, official stamps needed for all legal documents, and tobacco, as well as the tribute from Eastern Rumelia, Cyprus, Greece, Bulgaria, and Montenegro) were ceded to the European-controlled Public Debt Administration.

The army, chief vehicle of his policies, was reorganized and expanded, and the bulk of the state revenue was spent on its upkeep. Administrative and judicial practices were bureaucratized, with emphasis on record keeping and the separation of home and office. He justified these policies on religious grounds, making shari a (the law of Islam) the law of the land, and nonetheless turning all judges into paid servants of the state. Abd al-Rahman was able to concentrate on consolidating his rule at home because of Britain’s and Russia’s desire to avoid direct confrontation with each other.

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