Download Encyclopedia of The Peoples of Africa and the Middle East PDF

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His source contains round 1400 entries at the significant peoples that experience maintained a cultural id within the quarter - from old to trendy instances - summarising their heritage, migration, tradition, trust method, social supplier, and dating to different peoples.

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Tere were numerous Alawi uprisings against Ottoman rule in Syria and numerous devastating reprisals between the 16th and 20th centuries. Afer the collapse of the Ottoman Empire (see Ottomans) during World War I (1914–18), an independent Alawi region was created in 1922 during French colonial control of Syria. Teir independent status ended when French rule in Syria ended in 1946. In the 1950s, however, Alawis became frmly established in positions of power in the military Algerians: nationality 1 and intelligence forces.

Lowland farmers are able to produce two crops a year, but in the colder and less fertile highlands only a single crop is achieved. Oxen are used for plowing, though the poorer farmers may have to borrow or hire oxen for this purpose. Poultry, sheep, and goats are commonly kept, as are donkeys and mules for transportation. Wild cofee, which originates in Ethiopia, is gathered, though it is generally of poor quality. Te basic diet consists of vegetable or meat stews, accompanied by injera (a pancake-like fermented bread made from tef), cofee, beer, mead, or milk.

Te government tried to prevent FIS from repeating this performance in parliamentary elections planned for the following year by placing restrictions on campaigning within mosques and changing electoral rules in their favor. In the ensuing standof FIS leaders were arrested and there was widespread public disorder. When the FIS won almost half of the seats in the delayed parliamentary elections and seemed certain to take control of the national assembly in a second round of voting, the army stepped in, arrested FIS leaders, and postponed the second round of voting indefnitely.

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