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Download Etching of Crystals: Theory, Experiment, and Application by K. Sangwal PDF

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By K. Sangwal

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The precipitation should take place in such a way that particles smaller than the resolution limit of dislocations and sufficiently large to scatter light to become visible in an optical microscope, are formed. The particles can be observed either in transmitted or scattered light, depending on whether they are larger or smaller in size. Several decoration methods have been used for different crystals, and the geometry of dislocations and their reactions in a variety of crystals, ranging from semiconductors to alkali halides, have been studied.

9 (c) Anomalous transmission method (Borrmann et al. 1958). Compared with method (b), it is a transmission method allowing the use of thicker crystals. The diffracted and transmitted beams leave the same side of the crystal. Both beams are recorded. (d) and (e) Barth and Hosemann's (1958) and Authier's (1960) methods. These are combinations of the methods (b) and (c). (f) Two-crystal reflection method (Bonse 1958, Bonse and Kappler 1958). This is a modification of method (a). In the X-ray topographic techniques, observation of the contrast in the image formed by diffraction from different systems of lattice planes intersected by a dislocation, enables to determine the direction of the Burgers vector of that dislocation.

One-to-one correspondence between (a) dislocation etch-pit distribution, (b) SEM CL images, and (c) SEM EBIC/SB images of the same region of a GaP layer (Werkhoven et al. 1977). 8. Decoration techniques The decoration techniques involve the heating of a crystal to a temperature at which precipitation of suitable decoration agents, added deliberately or present in the lattice as impurities, takes place at dislocation sites. The precipitation should take place in such a way that particles smaller than the resolution limit of dislocations and sufficiently large to scatter light to become visible in an optical microscope, are formed.

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