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Download Experiments in Nuclear Science by Sidney A. Katz PDF

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By Sidney A. Katz

Features of Geiger-Muller CountersResolving TimeBackground CorrectionsInverse sq. LawCorrections for Geometry FactorsBack Scatter of RadiationCorrections for Self-absorptionRange of Beta RadiationsAbsorption of Beta RadiationAbsorption of Gamma RadiationRadioactive Decay and software EfficiencyHalf-life DeterminationInvestigation of 2 IndependentlyDecaying RadionuclidesHalf-life of a Long-lived Read more...

summary: features of Geiger-Muller CountersResolving TimeBackground CorrectionsInverse sq. LawCorrections for Geometry FactorsBack Scatter of RadiationCorrections for Self-absorptionRange of Beta RadiationsAbsorption of Beta RadiationAbsorption of Gamma RadiationRadioactive Decay and device EfficiencyHalf-life DeterminationInvestigation of 2 IndependentlyDecaying RadionuclidesHalf-life of a Long-lived RadionuclideAutoradiographyCalibration and Operation of the ElectroscopeProperties of Proportional CountersIntegral SpectraGamma Spectrometry IGamma Spectrometry IILiquid Scintillation Cou

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Sample text

Radiation from a point source is emitted spherically in all directions. The counting geometry, G, is the ratio of the area of the surface of the sphere covered by the detector to the total area of the radiation sphere. The area of the surface of the sphere covered by the detector is essentially the area of the detector window, which is a constant. The total surface area of the radiation sphere is 4πr2. Hence, the geometry is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the source and the detector, G ∝ 1/r2.

Comment on the relationship, if any, between scatter and atomic number of the backing material. What is back scatter? Could it have had a significant effect on any of the previous experiments? Two identical radioactive sources are counted on aluminum and steel planchettes. Will they give the same (within statistical error) count rates? Explain. Would beta particles with different energies than those used in this experiment give different results? Briefly explain. How does thickness of the backing material affect the results of this experiment?

4% efficiency? Assuming the gas amplification factor is 1010 and, on average, the energy to form one ion pair in argon, Ar+ + e—, is 26 eV, estimate the maximum number of electrons collected at the anode of a GeigerMüller detector when the β radiation associated with the decay of 14C is absorbed in the gas. 050 MeV. Would it be possible to determine the operating voltage if a source emitting a different type of radiation were used? For example, if a beta-emitting source were used in this experiment, would a gamma source give approximately the same result?

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