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By P.W. Milonni

The propagation of sunshine in dispersive media is a topic of primary in addition to useful value. in recent times realization has centred particularly on how refractive index can fluctuate with frequency in one of these method that the crowd velocities of optical pulses might be a lot better or a lot smaller than the rate of sunshine in vacuum, or during which the refractive index may be destructive. Treating those subject matters at an introductory to intermediate point, quickly gentle, gradual gentle and Left-Handed mild specializes in the fundamental idea and describes the numerous experimental growth made prior to now decade. The e-book will pay substantial cognizance to the truth that superluminal team velocities should not in clash with exact relativity and to the position of quantum results in fighting superluminal verbal exchange and violations of Einstein causality. It additionally explores many of the easy physics on the contrary severe of very sluggish crew velocities in addition to stopped and regenerated gentle, together with the recommendations of electromagnetically brought about transparency and dark-state polaritons. one other very energetic point of the topic mentioned issues the potential for designing metamaterials within which the refractive index might be damaging and propagating mild is left-handed within the experience that the section and crew velocities are in contrary instructions. The final chapters are an creation to a couple of the fundamental idea and outcomes of destructive refractive index, with emphasis at the seminal paintings conducted when you consider that 2000. the prospect that "perfect" lenses may be made of negative-index metamaterials-which has been probably themost arguable element of the field-is brought and mentioned in a few element.

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This however raised difficulty with the theory of relativity which states that no velocity can be higher than c, the velocity of light in vacuum. Group velocity, as originally defined, became larger than c or even negative within an absorption band. Such a contradiction had to be resolved and was extensively discussed in many meetings about 1910. Sommerfeld stated the problem correctly and proved that no signal velocity could exceed c. I discussed the problem in great detail and gave a complete answer.

9 The remainder of this book The first six chapters of this book will be concerned with dispersive media that are ‘unusual’ in that the group velocity of light pulses can be greater than c, infinite, negative, much less than c, or zero. All of these situations have been realized experimentally. It will be of interest to understand in some detail why ‘superluminal’ pulses are consistent with Einstein causality, to see how these unusual propagation effects are described by quantum theory, and to understand some of the basic physics underlying situations where light pulses can be slowed down to velocities far less than c or even brought to a complete stop.

The group velocity is abnormal at the frequency at which the absorption is strongest. Similarly, t (ω) > 0 and, therefore, vg < c at the frequency at which the absorption is weakest. In the case of an amplifying medium, with field amplification coefficient −κ(ω), vg < c at the frequency at which the gain is greatest. These results generalize the conclusions reached on the basis of a homogeneously broadened absorption (or amplification) line characterized by a Lorentzian lineshape. 3 Theoretical considerations of superluminal group velocity The literature relating to the theoretical possibility of superluminal group velocity is large and diverse and certainly did not end with the work of Sommerfeld and Brillouin.

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