Download Forensic Neuropathology (Hodder Arnold Publication) by Helen L. Whitwell PDF
By Helen L. Whitwell
Forensic neuropathology succeeds in combining the troubles of the forensic pathologists with these of the neuropathologist, addressing the overlapping difficulties which come up from the post-mortem and next felony court cases. The editor has the original adventure of operating together as a forensic pathologist and as a neuropathologist. a variety of illustrations supplement the textual content, a lot of that are in complete colour.
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Extra info for Forensic Neuropathology (Hodder Arnold Publication)
Full neuropathology of the ﬁxed brain (ideally after ﬁxation) should be undertaken. The blocking schedule is shown in Appendix 8. 11 (a) Diatom (from lung); (b) diatom preparation after acid digestion of tissue (phase contrast illumination). 28 ■ Techniques retained (Police Complaints Authority 2002). 5–1 cm snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at Ϫ70°C. This enables neurochemical examination to be undertaken, in particular for dopamine receptors (Mash and Staley 1999, Stephens et al. 2004).
Examination for vertebral/basilar tears may be undertaken as necessary. This is covered in detail in Chapter 6 under the heading Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage. Once the brain has been removed, before ﬁxation, other ﬁndings should be documented, including: • assessment of the volume of any extradural haemorrhage (EDH) and/or subdural haemorrhage (SDH); most often only an approximate estimation of volume can be given • lacerating and contusional injury, including pontomedullary tears • sinus thrombosis • identiﬁcation of items associated with surgical intervention such as aneurysm clips or coils • aneurysms: this should be done before ﬁxation which makes identiﬁcation at a later stage difﬁcult, if not impossible; this may necessitate washing away blood clot and dissecting along the paths of the arteries • infections, including meningitis, which may be predominantly basal • intracerebral haematomas may also be identiﬁed and care should be taken that they do not disrupt artefactually before ﬁxation.
B. It is mandatory to take a water sample from the scene because without this qualitative and quantitative analyses cannot be made. • • • • Pyramidal decussation Caudal end of olives Mid-olivary level Medullopontine junction Root of ﬁfth cranial nerve including middle cerebellar peduncles Pontomesencephalic junction including decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles Midbrain through inferior colliculi Midbrain through superior colliculi to include the substantia nigra (usually the level of separation of the brain stem from the cerebrum) Any suspect lesions CEREBELLUM SCREENING BLOCKS • Both dentate nuclei with dorsal cerebellar cortex • Hemispherical white matter with middle cerebellar peduncle • Vermis (superior and inferior) • Any suspect lesions CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE SCREENING BLOCKS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gyrus rectus Middle frontal gyrus Tip of temporal lobe Anterior cingulate gyrus with corpus callosum and parasagittal white matter Head of caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens Superior and middle temporal gyri Globus pallidus, putamen, claustrum, insula Anterior commissure, hypothalamus and substantia innominata Amygdala with uncus Mamillary bodies and hypothalamus Posterior limb of internal capsule and caudate nucleus Thalamus and subthalamic nuclei Superior parietal (motor and sensory) cortex Posterior cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, parasagittal white matter Hippocampal formation at the level of the lateral geniculate body, with parahippocampal gyrus and collateral sulcus Angular gyrus (lateral parietal cortex) Occipital lobe with calcarine cortex Any suspect lesions Modiﬁed from Dawson, T.