Download Fossil Energy: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of by Prof. Ripudaman Malhotra (auth.), Ripudaman Malhotra (eds.) PDF
By Prof. Ripudaman Malhotra (auth.), Ripudaman Malhotra (eds.)
The notice sustainability stocks its root with sustenance. within the context of contemporary society, sustenance is inextricably associated with using strength. Fossil strength provides an authoritative reference on all points of this key source, which presently represents approximately eighty five% of world power intake. collecting sixteen peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability technological know-how and Technology, the chapters offer finished, but concise assurance of basics and present parts of analysis. Written by means of famous professionals within the box, this quantity represents a necessary source for scientists and engineers engaged on the improvement of power assets, fossil or substitute, and displays the fundamental position of strength provides in helping a sustainable future.
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Extra resources for Fossil Energy: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology
These properties are mostly related to the mining aspects of the operations, and not all are of equal importance in their influence on the mining technology. Their relative importance also depends on the individual reservoir. Surface mining is the mining method that is currently being used by Suncor Energy and Syncrude Canada Limited to recover tar sand from the ground. Surface mining can be used in mineable tar sand areas which lie under 250 ft or less of overburden material. Less than 10% of the Athabasca Oil Sands deposit can be mined using the surface mining technique, as the other 90% of the deposit has more than 250 ft of overburden.
Depths to geological horizons having marked differences in transmissibility can be computed on a quantitative basis and the physical nature of these horizons deduced. However, geophysical exploration techniques cannot be applied indiscriminately. Knowledge of the geological parameters likely to be associated with the mineral or subsurface condition being studied is essential both in choosing the method to be applied and in interpreting the results obtained. Furthermore, not all the techniques described here may be suitable for petroleum exploration.
This procedure involves drilling a well and using instruments to log or make measurements at various levels in the hole by such means as gravity (density), electrical resistivity, or radioactivity. A basic rule of thumb in the upstream (or producing) sector of the oil and gas industry has been (and maybe still is in some circles of exploration technology) that the best place to find new crude oil or natural gas is near formations where it has already been found. The financial risk of doing so is far lower than that associated with drilling a rank wildcat hole in a prospective, but previously unproductive, area.