Download Fracture nanomechanics by Hirakata, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Takayuki; Shimada, Takahiro; PDF

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By Hirakata, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Takayuki; Shimada, Takahiro; Sumigawa, Takashi

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6 shows a creep curve under constant tensile load (static creep) at a constant temperature. 6 The creep curve consists of three stages: transient, steady, and accelerated. creep), where the creep rate decreases as time elapses, the rate becomes constant. Called steady-state creep or secondary creep, this actually occupies the greater part of creep life. 20) where ε˙ is the creep rate and Bc and nc are the material constants. 20 resembles the plastic law formulated in Eq. 14. Converting the strain and displacement in the plastic (nonlinearelastic) analyses into the strain rate and displacement rate in the creep the analysis is called the Hoff analogy (Hoff, 1954).

38) The characteristic of the stress field, namely the power λ in Eq. 33, is dependent not only on the combination of material but also on the shape of the edge (the angles of materials 1 and 2 near the interface edge, ϕ1 and ϕ2 ). λ = 1 − p, which is evaluated by Eq. 34, is not equal to 1/2 in general. The singularity appears in 0 < p < 1, while it does not in 1 < p. It should be noted that Eq. 34 sometimes has two solutions, which means the combined singularity appears in the vicinity of the interface edge.

10), and fn is measured by a noncontact device such as a laser displacement sensor. Because the preparation of a freestanding specimen is difficult, especially for nano-thick films, the method can be extended for a film fixed on a substrate, although the effect of the substrate needs to be considered. This method can evaluate only the elastic property. 9 Bending Test of a Cantilever The recent developments in focused ion beam (FIB) and lithography techniques enable us to fabricate a small specimen from a thin film.

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