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Download Handbook of Wafer Bonding by Peter Ramm, James Jian-Qiang Lu, Maaike M. V. Taklo PDF

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By Peter Ramm, James Jian-Qiang Lu, Maaike M. V. Taklo

Written by means of an writer and editor workforce from microsystems businesses and industry-near examine organisations, this guide and reference provides liable, first-hand info on bonding technologies.
within the first half, researchers from businesses and associations world wide speak about the main trustworthy and reproducible applied sciences for the construction of bonded wafers. the second one half is dedicated to present and rising functions, together with microresonators, biosensors and targeted measuring units.

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Nevertheless, the profile depth (peak to valley) of these surfaces is several nanometers, which typically prevents bonding over larger surface areas. 1a shows a schematic of the contact interface of two solid surfaces that are macroscopically flat, but exhibit surface roughness on a microscopic level. In order to bring two surfaces in sufficiently close contact to achieve bonding, at least one of the surfaces must deform to fit the other. This deformation may be accomplished by plastic or elastic deformation, by diffusion of a solid material, or by wetting of a surface with a liquid material.

Additionally, a layer thickness of 5 μm or greater is required to allow a good reflow of the glass during bonding, to ensure excellent sealing by the glass flowing into surface roughnesses and around surface structures. Since glasses can be transformed into pastes, screen printing is the best method for bringing the glass frit onto one of the wafers to be bonded. To prepare such pastes for screen printing, a low-melting-point glass, typically a lead zinc silicate glass or lead borate glass, is ground to particles with a size less than 15 μm.

272–276. 1 Introduction In polymer adhesive bonding, an intermediate polymer layer is used to create a bond between two surfaces to hold them together. In most commonly used polymer adhesive wafer bonding processes, a well-defined and defect-free polymer layer is applied to one or both of the wafer surfaces to be bonded. After joining the wafer surfaces, pressure is applied to force the wafer surfaces into intimate contact. The polymer is then converted from a liquid or viscoelastic state into a solid state, typically done by heating the polymer [1, 2].

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