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Download High-Energy Spectroscopic Astrophysics: Saas Fee Advanced by Steven M. Kahn, Peter Ballmoos, Rashid A. Sunyaev, Manuel PDF

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By Steven M. Kahn, Peter Ballmoos, Rashid A. Sunyaev, Manuel Güdel, Roland Walter

After 3 many years of excessive examine in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, the time used to be ripe to summarize simple wisdom on X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy for scholars and researchers able to get involved in new high-energy missions. This quantity exposes either the medical fundamentals and smooth equipment of high-energy spectroscopic astrophysics. The emphasis is on actual rules and watching equipment instead of a dialogue of specific sessions of high-energy items, yet many examples and new effects are incorporated within the 3 chapters to boot.

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Read or Download High-Energy Spectroscopic Astrophysics: Saas Fee Advanced Course 30, 2000. Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (Saas-Fee Advanced Courses) PDF

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Extra info for High-Energy Spectroscopic Astrophysics: Saas Fee Advanced Course 30, 2000. Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (Saas-Fee Advanced Courses)

Example text

The states are then characterized by n, l, s, j, mj . We will see shortly that this has important consequences for the specification of the states in multi-electron atoms. 5 The Central Field Approximation and Quantum Indistinguishability When there is more than one electron in the atom, the Schroedinger equation acquires an additional term due to the electron-electron repulsion: ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 ⎠ ψ({r j }) = 0 ⎝1 ∇2j + E + Z − (138) 2 j r | r − rj | j i j i>j where r j is the position coordinate of the jth electron, ∇j ≡ ∂/∂r j and the sum is taken over all electrons.

Thus significant mixing can occur between configurations like 3s2 3pk and 3pk+2 . In such cases, the identification of a particular transition with a set of upper and lower configurations is not very meaningful. 11 Selection Rules for Radiative Transitions The matrix elements which appear in the various terms in the multipole expansion for radiative transitions can vanish for particular choices of initial and final states. This gives rise to what are called selection rules for the various multipole transitions.

Kahn 1 ˜ | d(ω) |2 = 2 | j 0 |2 ω where j 0 ≡ (107) ˜ , ω) Thus: d3 r j(r 4 ω2 dW = | j 0 |2 . dt 3 c3 (108) In quantum mechanics, the charge density for a point charge is = q | ψ(r) |2 . From the continuity equation (5) and the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (67), it can be shown that the current density must be given by: j=− iq [ψ ∗ ∇ψ − ψ∇ψ ∗ ] . 2m (109) An appropriate “quantization” of the classical expression (108) can thus be obtained by setting: | j 0 |2 = d3 r −iq 2m ψf∗ ∇ψi − (∇ψf )∗ ψi q2 | f | p | i |2 m2 q 2 ωif = fi→f 2m = 2 (110) (111) (112) where fi→f is the electric dipole oscillator strength of (102).

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