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Download Improvising Planned Development on the Gezira Plain, Sudan, by Maurits W. Ertsen PDF

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By Maurits W. Ertsen

The common snapshot of the Gezira Scheme, the large-scale irrigation scheme began lower than British colonial rule in Sudan, is of a centrally deliberate attempt via a valuable colonial energy controlling tenants and cotton creation. despite the fact that, any idea(l)s of deliberate irrigation and revenue in Gezira needed to be learned by means of African farmers and eu officers, who either had their very own agendas. tasks like Gezira are top understood by way of non-stop negotiations. This booklet rewrites Gezira’s background by way of colonial keep an eye on, farmers’ activities and resistance, and the wider improvement debate.

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Additional info for Improvising Planned Development on the Gezira Plain, Sudan, 1900–1980

Example text

The idea of partnership linked closely to scheme management—who was supposed to do what at which moment—including the hierarchical relations that were either assumed or created. Agricultural procedures in Gezira were set and controlled by the Syndicate, with tenants working within a strict control system built on the cotton production cycle. Given the theme of this book, it should not come as a surprise that scheme management did not necessarily proceed as planned. Each season anew, rain was a major disturbing factor in planning agricultural activities.

190 Indeed, in November Wingate received news hot from the press that “half a million for Sudan” would be found. 192 The Treasury did not offer any money, but the Sudan Government was allowed to spend the remaining part of the original loan. 197 Hard work it was, but the apparent success was clear enough, or so it seemed. ”198 Obviously, everyone was aware that this success was again only a next step in the right direction. 202 The delegates reached an agreement in October 1919. Next to the arrangements already known—like partnership, supervision, and water delivery—how to ensure that the “considerable number of officials in direct contact with the natives” by “British and others of a lower grade of education” would work out was arranged.

107 SPS insistence on clarifying the irrigated area was rather smart. The draft agreement stipulated that the government intended “to bring under irrigation a portion of the Gezira” as “a joint undertaking in partnership” with the SPS. The government provided the main works; the SPS was the single partner throughout the concession period. It would pay for management, supervision, collecting, storing, and marketing of the crops. 110 In November 1913, Kitchener accepted the draft agreement with some further suggestions—for example on tenant recruitment (Europeans could not be tenants) and profits.

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