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Download Lévy statistics and laser cooling : how rare events bring by François Bardou; et al PDF

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By François Bardou; et al

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Since k and Sˆ are in opposite directions, it can be inferred that n < 0. A rigorous explanation of this choice of the negative sign for the square √ root n = − εμ involves the consideration of causal boundary conditions and dissipative media, whose discussion is postponed to Chapter 5. 1 Terminology We end this chapter by briefly touching upon the terminology used in the literature and in this book for media with Re(ε) < 0 and Re(μ) < 0. Historically, the first name was given in Veselago (1968): left-handed media (LHM).

Quadrant 4: This quadrant is the dual of quadrant 2, with Re(ε) > 0 and Re(μ) < 0. Here, too, a wave incident on a medium of this family decays evanescently within the medium and no propagating modes are sustained. Due to the absence of magnetic monopoles, there can be no exact analogue of an electric plasma but there are natural examples of some antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials with a resonance at microwave frequencies that exhibit Re(μ) < 0 in a frequency band above the resonance frequency.

4 Phase velocity and group velocity Shortly after Maxwell introduced the concept of electromagnetic waves, he immediately went about calculating the velocity of these waves and realized that, for a single frequency and in vacuum, they were propagating at the velocity of light (which allowed him to make the connection between the field of electromagnetics and the field of optics). The concept of velocity is fundamental in the study of waves and signals since it provides information on how the wave evolves in space and time, and how fast information can be transfered from one point to another.

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