Download Mass Balance of the Cryosphere: Observations and Modelling by John Houghton, Jonathan L. Bamber, Antony J. Payne PDF

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By John Houghton, Jonathan L. Bamber, Antony J. Payne

Supplying a entire assessment of the importance of the glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland, this research stories the idea in the back of climatological observations. It describes current modelling stories and expected destiny alterations within the mass balances of those key signs of worldwide weather switch. the quantity is a crucial reference for scientists operating in weather switch, environmental sciences and glaciology.

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Additional info for Mass Balance of the Cryosphere: Observations and Modelling of Contemporary and Future Changes

Sample text

For Greenland, extensive photogrammetric measurements of calving front thickness and velocity have been published by Bauer et al. (1968), Carbonnell and Bauer (1968) and Higgins (1991). Bauer et al. (1968) determined velocities in the frontal region of glaciers calving into Disko Bugt and Uummannaq Bugt in central West Greenland, using repeated vertical aerial photographs taken in 1957 at 4- to 5-day intervals. The mean thickness near the glacier fronts was estimated from overturned icebergs displayed on the aerial photographs or from bathymetry of the fjords near the glacier fronts.

In the ablation area, the snow–ice reflector can easily be identified by use of layer reflection intensity, since the winter snow cover lies on top of uniform cold ice. In the accumulation area the snow–firn interface is less distinct, due to a less homogeneous and less developed summer surface. The snow cover lies on top of heterogeneous firn (firn, ice layers and superimposed ice) as can be seen in pits and ice-core stratigraphy. The previous winter snow layer reflection must be correlated to the core stratigraphy and manual probing.

From Paterson (1994, fig. ) Detailed studies of structure, internal refreezing in ice layers, dust layers, free water content etc. can be studied in the pits. At glaciers where detailed mass balance studies are carried out, the density must be known at different altitudes at the end of the accumulation season, and again the remaining snow density at the end of the ablation season must be known. Annual cycles – oxygen isotopes, dust, chemistry In cold regions on glaciers where little melting occurs during the summer, the annual cycles can be recorded in deep firn cores by oxygen isotope studies.

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