Materials Material Science

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By S.L. Kakani

Covers numerous suitable subject matters in BE (Mechanical/Metallurgy/Material Science/Production Engineering), MSc (Material Science), BSc (Honours), MSc (Physics), MSc (Chemistry), AMIE and degree scholars. This paintings is acceptable for college kids showing for GATE, UPSC, internet, SLET and different front examinations.

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Iii) Tritium (1T3) with atomic mass equal to 3. Similarly, chlorine has two isotopes, 17Cl35 and 17Cl37. These isotopes are available in the ratio of 3 : 1. 48 8. ISOBARS Atoms with the same mass but belonging to different chemical elements are called isobars. Obviously, isobars possess different number of protons and electrons in their atoms. Total number of protons and neutrons in each of their nuclei is also same. The example of first pair of isobars is argon and calcium. Argon (atomic number 18) has 18p, 18e and 22 n in its atom.

About 1 in 10,000 particles suffered a deflection of more than 90°. e. suffered a deflection through 180°. (Fig. 3) Scattered alpha particles Thin metal foil Alpha particle beam f f f f Fluorescent screen Lead block Radium Fig. 2 Rutherford =-scattering experiment Alpha particles a- r pa tic le Atom Nucleus a-particles Fig. 3 Deflection of =-particles in the vicinity of a nucleus Rutherford a-particle scattering experiments established the incorrectness of the uniform distribution of positive charge in a sphere of atomic dimensions in the Thomson’s atomic model.

Thomson, while studying the passage of electricity through gases at low pressure, observed that the rays of light appear to travel in straight lines from the surface of the cathode and move away from it in the discharge tube. These rays are called cathode rays since they start from the cathode of the discharge tube. W. Crookes studied the properties of these cathode rays and showed that the rays, (i) travel in straight line and cast shadows (ii) carried negative charge and sufficient momentum (iii) possess high kinetic energy and can induce some chemical reactions, excite fluorescence on certain substances.

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