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By Giles F. Carter

Fabrics technological know-how & Engineering [Mar 01, 1991] Carter, Giles F. and Paul, Donald E.

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Ka 1 and Ka2 X-rays, which are emitted in random directions from the specimen, are collimated by passing through a collimator having several thin metal sheets parallel to one another. The collimator absorbs all X-rays that are not parallel, leaving a beam of parallel X-rays. 78° (Bragg angle 6) to the X-ray beam. 78°. 56°. A suitable detector is located in the path of the diffracted iron X-rays and counts the X-rays as they enter. The count rate for a given wavelength of X-rays is dependent on the concentration of the element giving rise to these X-rays in the specimen.

00000 in?. MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 42 Fig. 3 Bulk Modulus of Elasticity Hydrostatic compression causes metals to contract in volume, volume is initially proportional to the hydrostatic pressure: t:. ). f:i is a constant having units (m 3/m3 )Pa or (in. 3/in. 3 )psi.

Thus, low atomic number elements, such as carbon and hydrogen, are poor scatterers for diffraction of X-rays or electrons. It is difficult to locate hydrogen atoms by X-ray diffraction when heavy elements are present. Additionally, it is difficult to distinguish between isoelectronic (the same number of electrons) ions or atoms nearly isoelectronic with each other. In neutron diffraction, various elements show an irregular variation in neutron-scattering power. Because hydrogen, beryllium, and carbon have higher relative scattering powers, these atoms may be located in structures containing these atoms.

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