Download Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing (2nd Edition) by Ching H. Yew, Xiaowei Weng PDF
By Ching H. Yew, Xiaowei Weng
Revised to incorporate present elements thought of for today’s unconventional and multi-fracture grids, Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing, moment variation explains essentially the most very important good points for fracture layout — the power to foretell the geometry and features of the hydraulically brought on fracture. With two-thirds of the world’s oil and ordinary gasoline reserves dedicated to unconventional assets, hydraulic fracturing is the easiest confirmed good stimulation technique to extract those assets from their extra distant and complicated reservoirs. even though, few hydraulic fracture types can appropriately simulate extra complicated fractures. Engineers and good designers needs to comprehend the underlying mechanics of ways fractures are modeled that allows you to accurately expect and forecast a extra complicated fracture network.
Updated to deal with today’s fracturing jobs, Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing, moment version permits the engineer to:
Understand advanced fracture networks to maximise crowning glory strategiesRecognize and compute tension shadow, that could enormously have an effect on fracture community patternsOptimize completions via thoroughly modeling and extra safely predicting for today’s hydraulic fracturing completions
Discusses the underlying mechanics of making a fracture from the wellbore greater to incorporate more moderen modeling elements reminiscent of rigidity shadow and interplay of hydraulic fracture with a usual fracture, which aids in additional advanced fracture networksUpdated experimental experiences that follow to today’s unconventional fracturing cases.
Table of contents :
Front topic, Pages i-ii
Copyright, web page iv
Preface to the 1st version, Pages vii-viii
Preface to the second one version, web page ix
Chapter 1 - Fracturing of a wellbore and second fracture versions, Pages 1-22
Chapter 2 - third-dimensional fracture modeling, Pages 23-48
Chapter three - Proppant delivery in a 3D fracture, Pages 49-68
Chapter four - Deviated wellbores, Pages 69-88
Chapter five - Link-up of mini-fractures from perforated holes, Pages 89-103
Chapter 6 - Turning of fracture from a deviated wellbore, Pages 105-131
Chapter 7 - Fracture propagation in a evidently fractured formation, Pages 133-175
Chapter eight - rigidity shadow, Pages 177-196
Chapter nine - Experimental experiences, Pages 197-220
Notations, Pages 221-222
Author Index, Pages 223-226
Subject Index, Pages 227-234
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Additional resources for Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing (2nd Edition)
Since the above equation is a 2D surface integral equation, only the surface of fracture needs to be divided into elements in the numerical evaluation of the equation. However, the integral converges only in a Cauchy principal value sense. It is difficult to obtain an accurate and efficient numerical solution from the equation in its present form. In addition, the requirement of function w(x, y) for the Cauchy integral in this equation to converge is that @w/@x and @w/@y be continuous. This requirement further increases the complexity in numerical discretization.
Keer, T. Mura, Growth of planar cracks induced by hydraulic fracturing, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 15 (1980) 41–54. F. Carey, Grid Generation, Refinement and Redistribution, Wiley, UK, 1994. W. T. Houlsby, An implementation of Watson’s algorithm for computing twodimensional delaunay triangulations, Advancement in Engineering Softwares 6 (no. 4) (1984) 41–48. B. B. K. H. Klein, E. Siebrits, X. Dang, Layered Modulus Effects on Fracture Propagation, Proppant Placement, and Fracture Modeling, in: Paper SPE 71654, presented at SPE ATCE, New Orleans, 30 September–3 October, 2001.
The pressure drop, however, slows down as the proppant is pumped into the fracture. The proppant settles into the bottom portion of the fracture due to the action of gravity and a low fluid velocity in the region. As the proppant concentration increases, the borehole pressure and the fracture opening width begins to increase and the growth of fracture begins to slow down as shown in the fracture contour plot of Fig. 3-3. 52. Under this circumstance, the hydraulic fracture ceases to grow and continuous pumping causes only a rapid increase of the borehole pressure and fracture opening width as shown in the Figs.