Human Geography

Download Muslim Fortresses in the Levant: Between Crusaders and by Kate Raphael PDF

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By Kate Raphael

In the course of a lot of the 12th century the Crusaders ruled the army scene within the Levant. The unification of Egypt and Syria by way of Saladin steadily replaced the stability of energy, which slowly began to tilt in favour of the Muslims. This publication examines the improvement and position of Muslim fortresses within the Levant on the time of the Crusaders and the Mongol invasion, situating the research inside of a large ancient, political and armed forces context. Exploring the unification of Egypt with a wide a part of Syria and its impact at the stability of energy within the zone, Raphael provides a old assessment of the ensuing army ideas and development of fortresses. an in depth architectural research relies on a survey of 4 Ayyubid and 8 Mamluk fortresses located in what are at the present time the fashionable states of Jordan, Israel, Southern Turkey and Egypt (the Sinai Peninsula). the writer then explores the relationship among strongholds or army structure, and the improvement of siege war and know-how, and examines the impact of structure and strategies of rule at the thought of defence and the improvement of fortifications. Drawing upon excavation studies, box surveys and modern Arabic assets, the e-book presents the Arabic architectural terminology and touches at the problems of studying the assets. unique maps of the fortresses within the area, the Mongol invasion routs, plans of websites and pictures help the reader during the publication, offering an immense addition to latest literature within the components of Medieval Archaeology, Medieval army background and heart japanese reports.

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Extra resources for Muslim Fortresses in the Levant: Between Crusaders and Mongols (Culture and Civilization in the Middle East)

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23 Another issue that will be emphasized is the ownership and building initiation of fortress construction during the Ayyubid period. As opposed to the Franks, some of whose early fortresses were built and owned by wealthy agricultural landlords who formed part of the Kingdom’s nobility,23 none of the above Ayyubid fortresses were built by families of high standing. Most of the construction was initiated by the Sultan or by one of the high ranking Ayyubid princes or amirs. The ole of fortresses in the Ayyubid period Several scholars have noted that the development of fortresses is a close and ongoing dialogue between siege warfare and the various methods of defense,24 both of which were constantly advancing during the twelfth and first half of the thirteenth centuries.

N. Johns, “Medieval ‘Ajlun,” QDAP, vol. 1, 1931. pl. 21. Plan of adapted from Deschamps, Les Chateaux des Croisés et Terre Sainte II: La defense du royaume de Jérusalem, Paris, 1939, fig. 1. Plan of Qal’at Sadr adapted from J. 2 Mount Tabor, plan and aerial photograph (1945). Plan adapted from Battista and Bagatti, Monte Tabor; Tav. 33). 3 , masonry in towers built during the first phase (1184). Curtain wall between towers 1 and 2. Plan adapted from Johns, “,” pl. 4 , curtain wall between towers 7 and 8 belonging to the second phase (1184–1214).

25 Fortifications were regarded by the Franks as essential to the existence and safety of their kingdom, and fulfilled both military and civil functions. Rural and frontier fortresses did not play the same role or receive the same attention or priority among the Ayyubid Sultans and political and military nobility. Their pat in Ayyubid military array seems to have been less significant to the defense of the Sultanate in comparison with the role assigned to fortifications by the Franks and later by the Mamluks.

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