Download Obligationes: 14th Century Logic of Disputational Duties by Mikko Yrjönsuuri PDF
By Mikko Yrjönsuuri
ll historical past of the Genre
A. historic background
B. Systematic background
Ill Walter Burley's concept of Obligations
A. responsibilities as duties
B. crucial rules
C. necessary rules
D. Speciei of positio
IV Revisions of the Rules
A. What time is it?
B. Rejection of the order principle
C. column book-keeping
V Obligational Reasoning and Epistemic Sophismata
A. common remarks.
B. Kilvington's revision
C. Doubting even if one may recognize ..
D. One can't doubt no matter if one knows
VI glossy Interpretations
A. The disputational context
B. a style for discussing possibilities
C. tasks as idea experiments
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Extra info for Obligationes: 14th Century Logic of Disputational Duties
Translation in Burley 1988, p. 381. 52 Walter Burley's Theory of Obligations If it is irrelevant, it must be responded to on the basis of its own quality; and this [means] on the basis of the quality it has relative to us. For example, if it is true [and] known to be true, it should be granted. If it is false [and] known to be false, it should be denied. If it is uncertain, one should respond by saying that one is in doubt. Since irrelevant sentences cannot be evaluated by the previous rules, by the principle of keeping consistent, they are evaluated according to their actual truth value as far as it is known - this is the quality Burley has in mind.
Characteristically, it is imagined to determine the truth values of the sentences proposed in the disputation. During the disputation the casus is used in deciding the answers for the technically irrelevant propositions, which according to the rules are answered in accordance with their actual truth-values. If a sentence included in the casus is proposed in the disputation, and it is evaluated to be irrelevant, it is judged to be true and it has to be granted. This follows naturally from the idea that the casus is understood as if it were true.
Now, if ,the opponent, after 'some man is speaking' has been granted, asks who is this speaking man, the respondent is in a problematic situation. He cannot say that Socrates is speaking, since his positum is that Socrates is silent. If he points out some other manj he admits a false irrelevant sentence, since he is in no way obliged to predicate speaking to just this man. Burley's point is that the respondent should not answer such a question. " I do not think that we can call this question in Kretzmann's and Stump's way "a question requiring a distinction" (distinguibilis).