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Download Oxidation of Metals by Karl Hauffe (auth.) PDF

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By Karl Hauffe (auth.)

During the interpretation, the writer had the chance to re­ view a number of chapters, making an allowance for the more moderen literature. so far as attainable all new theoretical suggestions and experi­ psychological information released earlier than 1963 were quoted and mentioned lower than the theoretical point of view of this booklet. a brand new bankruptcy "Passivity and Inhibition in the course of High-Tempera­ ture Oxidation" was once brought. part 4.8 used to be enlarged through a dis­ cussion of the transition from inner to exterior oxidation. the writer a great deal appreciates the cooperation of the trans­ lator and of Plenum Press. Gottingen, April 1.965 Karl Hauffe v Preface The variety of guides fascinated about oxidation and cor­ rosion tactics has turn into so copious that many engineers and scientists locate it essentially most unlikely to procure an total view of the transforming into physique of information and to carry order to the complicated multiplicity of experimental information. therefore the necessity for a compre­ hensive survey of the current nation of study during this box has be­ come an increasing number of urgent.

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NFl 33,111 (1962). 26 2. Lattice Defect Phenomena and Diffusion Processes can frequently be attained by choosing a sufficiently high experimental temperature. The temperature required for the realization of this condition depends only on the migration rates of the ionic lattice defects and of the electrons and holes in the crystal. If the diffusion rates of the ion lattice defects are sufficiently high, then the effect of oxygen on the oxide is to produce an equal number of ionic lattice defects and electrons and holes distributed uniformly throughout the crystal, thus maintaining electroneutrality in the entire crystal.

Dislocations caused by deformation and mechanical stresses (pressure, tension, torsion)]. For this reason, grainboundary or, more generally, short-circuit diffusion, in contrast to lattice diffusion, is very much dependent upon the structure of the material, and is therefore frequently referred to as structure-sensitive diffusion. For the quantitative evaluation of the relationship of grain-boundary and lattice diffusion Fisherl and Turnbull 2 formulated diffusion equations which essentially represent the actual physical situation.

Kottmann: Naturw. 39,40 (1952); W. Seith and R. Ludwig: Z. Metallk. 45, 401 (1954). , and A. Kottmann: Angew. Chern. 64, 376 (1952). 1 2 30 2. Lattice Defect Phenomena and Ditlusion Processes As Seith and Kottmann1 were able to demonstrate, the ideal Kirkendall effect-for example, in the Ni-Cu system (Fig. 19)-is often significantly disturbed by the appearance of pores in the copper in the vicinity of the phase boundary and by the appearance of a "swelling" in the nickel. If we tentatively assume a vacancy mechanism for diffusion, then the difference between the diffusion currents has a further consequence.

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