Download Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index by S. Anantha Ramakrishna PDF

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By S. Anantha Ramakrishna

Ever because the first experimental demonstration was once mentioned in 2000, the curiosity in metamaterials and left-handed media that express a unfavourable refractive index has elevated exponentially. Surveying this explosive progress, Physics and functions of damaging Refractive Index Materials covers the basic actual rules and rising engineering functions of dependent electromagnetic metamaterials that yield a unfavourable refraction in addition to different unforeseen actual houses. It offers certain causes at the background, improvement, and major achievements of metamaterials.

Making it effortless to entry suitable, updated info at the box, the authors collect crucial and influential papers with regards to metamaterials. They current the foundations of unfavourable refraction and examine the individuality of novel metamaterials with different media that show related houses. The e-book discusses the layout, optimization, and trying out of based metamaterials in addition to functions of metamaterials at frequencies starting from radio wave to optical. It additionally explores novel options and phenomena, resembling the proper lens for super-resolution imaging, hyper lenses that couple the near-field to radiative modes, electromagnetic cloaking and invisibility, and near-field optical imaging.

Connecting theoretical rules to contemporary experimental concepts and effects, this state of the art publication allows an knowing of the fundamental ideas of and learn contributions to metamaterials with adverse refractive index and their electromagnetic properties.

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Since k and Sˆ are in opposite directions, it can be inferred that n < 0. A rigorous explanation of this choice of the negative sign for the square √ root n = − εμ involves the consideration of causal boundary conditions and dissipative media, whose discussion is postponed to Chapter 5. 1 Terminology We end this chapter by briefly touching upon the terminology used in the literature and in this book for media with Re(ε) < 0 and Re(μ) < 0. Historically, the first name was given in Veselago (1968): left-handed media (LHM).

Quadrant 4: This quadrant is the dual of quadrant 2, with Re(ε) > 0 and Re(μ) < 0. Here, too, a wave incident on a medium of this family decays evanescently within the medium and no propagating modes are sustained. Due to the absence of magnetic monopoles, there can be no exact analogue of an electric plasma but there are natural examples of some antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials with a resonance at microwave frequencies that exhibit Re(μ) < 0 in a frequency band above the resonance frequency.

4 Phase velocity and group velocity Shortly after Maxwell introduced the concept of electromagnetic waves, he immediately went about calculating the velocity of these waves and realized that, for a single frequency and in vacuum, they were propagating at the velocity of light (which allowed him to make the connection between the field of electromagnetics and the field of optics). The concept of velocity is fundamental in the study of waves and signals since it provides information on how the wave evolves in space and time, and how fast information can be transfered from one point to another.

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