Download Power Quality Indices in Liberalized Markets by Pierluigi Caramia PDF
By Pierluigi Caramia
Energy caliber (PQ) indices are a robust instrument for speedy quantifying PQ disturbances. in addition they function the foundation for illustrating the adverse impression of electric disturbances on parts and for assessing compliance with the mandatory criteria and proposals inside a regulating framework.Within those pages lies a entire review of either the conventional PQ indices in use this present day and new indices prone to be utilized in the future.Key good points of this e-book include:a certain specialize in the metrics for quantifying PQ disturbances;a whole overview of equipment and indices for assessing disturbance duties among clients and utilities;a survey on PQ goals world wide, with highlights at the monetary features of PQ disturbances.Inside, you will discover an intensive and well-balanced therapy on theoretical strategies and sensible purposes, better by means of examples and workouts of PQ indices computation and use.This is a vital source for teachers, scholars of energy caliber, reliability and electricity platforms classes, and likewise for training engineers desirous about fixing PQ difficulties within the new buildings of liberalised strength markets.
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Additional resources for Power Quality Indices in Liberalized Markets
EN 50160–2000 considers the following condition to indicate acceptable performance of the system: during each period of one week, under normal operating conditions, the 95th percentile of the 10-min mean RMS values of the supply voltage shall be within the ranges Un Æ 10% for the LV system and UC Æ 10% for the MV system, where Un is the nominal voltage of the system and UC is the declared supply voltage. For the Norwegian PQ directives, variations in the voltage RMS value, measured as a mean value over one minute, shall be within an interval of Æ 10% of the nominal voltage .
In Australia, distribution companies fix different limits for RMS voltage variations. In particular, Integral Energy fixes the following limits: þ14% and –6% of the nominal voltage for LV systems; Æ10% for MV systems. EnergyAustralia’s objective, on the other hand, is to maintain the 10-min RMS value of the phase-to-neutral supply voltage within the following range: between 253 V and 264 V (upper limit) and between 226 V and 216 V (lower limit) for systems with nominal phase voltage equal to 240 V.
The planning levels are assessed by using the measured 3-s and 10-min values over at least a one-week period. In particular: 1. 4. 2. 4 multiplied by a factor khvs ¼ 1:3 þ 0:7 45 ðh À 5Þ. Most national standards or regional guidelines provide indicative values for harmonic voltages at HV–EHV. In most cases, these values correspond to the planning levels for HV– EHV published in IEC 61000-3-6–2008, locally adapted to account for specific system configurations or circumstances. A standard such as EN 50160 does not exist for defining voltage characteristics for transmission systems at HV–EHV.