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25. RT spontaneous and lasing emission spectra of a GaSbbased VCSEL [110]. (a) spontaneous spectrum measured from the edge of the device (b) spontaneous spectrum measured from the surface (c) lasing emission spectrum measured from the surface. 3 µm based on type-II GaInAsSb/ GaSb QW structures has been reported in [46,72,82,92,93,94,95]. 3 µm. The wells and the barriers had a type-II band alignment with a valence band offset ∆ Ev of −60 meV (the heavy hole subband for the QW) and a conduction band offset ∆ Ec = 350 meV.

Under typical carrier injection (σ = 1 × 1012 cm−2 ) overlap values as high as 60 % can be obtained, making this type-II structure comparable to a type-I one. In order to evaluate the lasing performances of such type-II structures, the optical gain G( ω) was calculated for different injected carrier densities σ in the active region [140,141]. 25 × 1012 cm−2 to σ = 2×1012 cm−2 (Fig. 41). At low temperature (Fig. 2 × 1012 cm−2 . On the other hand at RT (Fig. 70 × 1012 cm−2 to satisfy the Bernard–Duraffourg condition.

Density like the variation of the Fermi–Dirac distribution (fnc − fm To achieve laser emission, it is necessary to satisfy the following condition: Gmod = αtotal ((3) in Sect. 1), where Gmod is the modal gain of the structure (the useful part of the gain) and αtotal the total optical losses. The modal gain is obtained from the relation: Gmod = Np Γp Gmax , where Gmax is the peak gain value extracted from the gain curves (Fig. 41), Np is the number of QW periods (Np = 10) and Γp is the optical confinement factor per QW.

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