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By Grigoris Antoniou, Visit Amazon's Paul Groth Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Paul Groth, , Frank van Harmelen, Rinke Hoekstra
The improvement of the Semantic net, with machine-readable content material, has the aptitude to revolutionize the area large internet and its makes use of. A Semantic internet Primer offers an creation and consultant to this continually evolving box, describing its key principles, languages, and applied sciences. compatible to be used as a textbook or for self reliant examine by way of pros, it concentrates on undergraduate-level primary ideas and methods that may allow readers to continue with construction purposes all alone and comprises workouts, venture descriptions, and annotated references to appropriate on-line materials.
The 3rd version of this regular textual content has been completely up to date, with major new fabric that displays a speedily constructing box. remedy of the several languages (OWL2, principles) expands the assurance of RDF and OWL, defining the knowledge version independently of XML and together with insurance of N3/Turtle and RDFa. A bankruptcy is dedicated to OWL2, the recent W3C commonplace. This variation additionally good points extra insurance of the question language SPARQL, the rule of thumb language RIF and the opportunity of interplay among ideas and ontology languages and purposes. The bankruptcy on Semantic internet purposes displays the swift advancements of the earlier few years. a brand new bankruptcy bargains rules for time period tasks. extra fabric, together with updates at the technological tendencies and examine instructions, are available at http://www.semanticwebprimer.org.
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2 The XML Language 29 The XML Language An XML document consists of a prolog, a number of elements, and an optional epilog (not discussed here). 1 Prolog The prolog consists of an XML declaration and an optional reference to external structuring documents. > It speciﬁes that the current document is an XML document, and deﬁnes the version and the character encoding used in the particular system (such as UTF-8, UTF-16, and ISO 8859-1). The character encoding is not mandatory, but its speciﬁcation is considered good practice.
In addition, Web searches can exploit generalization/specialization information. If a query fails to ﬁnd any relevant documents, the search engine may suggest to the user a more general query. It is even conceivable for the engine to run such queries proactively to reduce the reaction time in case the user adopts a suggestion. Or if too many answers are retrieved, the search engine may suggest to the user some specializations. In Artiﬁcial Intelligence (AI) there is a long tradition of developing and using ontology languages.
Such XML applications have been deﬁned in various domains, for example, mathematics (MathML), bioinformatics (BSML), human resources (HRML), astronomy (AML), news (NewsML), and investment (IRML). Also, the W3C has deﬁned various languages on top of XML, such as SVG and SMIL. This approach has also been taken for RDF (see chapter 3). It should be noted that XML can serve as a uniform data exchange format between applications. In fact, XML’s use as a data exchange format between applications nowadays far outstrips its originally intended use as document markup language.