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By J M Bruce
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Extra resources for Sopwith 1 1
Gaynor et al. (2008) studied the fuel starvation problem in SOFC and suggested three methods to prevent it through control actions: use of a rate limiter on the load, changes on the fuel flow controller and reference governors. These latter use a dynamic lumped model to predict the future response of the system to set the reference control commands, instead of using ﬁxed set points. 4 Literature Survey 15 A lumped model was also applied for the transient modeling of a tubular SOFC by Hajimolana and Soroush (2009); they developed suitable strategies aimed at controlling voltage and cell-tube temperature by properly acting on both temperature and pressure of the inlet air flow.
Such models, as reported before, are exploited both for on-line monitoring and for the design of control and diagnostic strategies. , when a prototype is already available. Thus, the lack of some physical information may be overcome by introducing data extracted from experiments or from complex multidimensional models, whose outputs may be used as virtual experiments in the frame of hierarchical modeling. Therefore, 0D models merge a simpliﬁed phenomenological description together with practical or empirical information.
All models aim at control and diagnostic applications with two main objectives: the ﬁrst concerns with the design of both control and diagnostic strategies, whereas the second deals with the on-line monitoring of SOFC systems. , optimization purposes or analysis of scenarios; on the other hand the models must be precise enough for an accurate description of the system dynamics. , lumped, combine together these features. The on-line monitoring is a key part of both diagnosis and control algorithms, as described in the following chapters; it requires models running faster than real time, in such a way that they can simulate the system process in parallel to the real one: data-driven (or black-box) models are the most suitable for these applications.