Waste Management

Download The Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Wastewater by B. Halling-Sørensen PDF

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By B. Halling-Sørensen

This quantity offers an outline of the vast spectrum of nitrogen elimination techniques to be had this present day. half A supplies a quick define of nitrogen toxins assets, the worldwide nitrogen cycle and the therapy tools; half B offers information of all organic tools for nitrogen elimination; and half C describes the physico-chemical nitrogen elimination tools. layout examples in terms of components B and C are given in appendices.Design equations are given within the textual content, yet extra emphasis has been put on the profound knowing of the organic and chemical methods and the elemental components that impression those. Parameters and regression equations for a quantitive description of those components and their impression at the key methods are offered in different tables. this option makes the quantity a really necessary instruction manual; it is going to be of significant worth to these environmentalists who require a checklist of the to be had nitrogen elimination equipment from either organic and chemical viewpoints.

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Today the application of membrane techniques is still limited, but waste water engineers and scientists in the field of membrane processes expect a rapid growth in the use of these technologies in the very near future. Precipitation Precipitation, in a strictly chemical sense, is the transition of a substance from the dissolved state to the non-dissolved state by the addition of other reagents that lead to the formation of precipitates. Most nitrogen compounds are, unfortunately, readily dissolved in water, which implies that precipitation cannot be used as an easy solution to the problem of nitrogen removal.

Ammonia is a colourless gas with an irritating odour. Gaseous ammonia has a vapor pressure of about 10 atmospheres at 25OC,and is readily liquefied, giving a colourless liquid that boils at minus 33°C. Ammonium is a weak base, ammonia readily accepts protons from acids and hydronium ions, forming salts of the ammonium ion (NH4+). Ammonium-nitrogenor ammonium-N:both terms are used to indicate that the nitrogen is calculated as 1 mole of ammonium-N equal to 14 g of ammonium-N. It convinient to calculate from one nitrogen form to another using this term.

43 Chapter 4 describes how the denitrificationcan be accomplished biologically under anoxic conditions. Two types of enzyme systems are involved in the reduction of nitrate: assimilatory and dissimilatory. In the assimilatory nitrate reduction process, NO, -N is convertedto ammonia nitrogen for the use by the cells in biosynthesis. It occurs when NO, -N is the only form of nitrogen available. In the dissimilatory nitrate reduction process, nitrogen gas is formed from nitrate. This latter process is normally called denitrification of waste water, and demands a carbon source to provide energy for the process.

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