Download The Soils of Bulgaria by Toma Shishkov PDF
By Toma Shishkov
The Soils of Bulgaria bargains a accomplished research of the features of soils and ideas on their value. the aim of the booklet is to introduce readers to the soil complex and ecology in Bulgaria. the quantity is split into three elements. the 1st contains old evidence on soil study in Bulgaria, in addition to common stipulations and elements of soil formation, whereas the second one applies an unique pedological technique. The book’s 3rd half makes a speciality of crucial details bearing on land use/cover in Bulgaria. all the thirteen chapters bargains extra particularly with primary chemical and actual soil homes, suggestions of soil evolution, outdated and smooth techniques, geographic distribution, weather conditions, topography, guardian fabrics, plant institutions, morphology and the connection with varied category platforms. The interactions among soil prestige and administration also are highlighted. using the most recent, statistically major facts guarantees distinct conclusions. The publication additionally contains a huge variety of charts and new illustrations. The Soils of Bulgaria is important studying fabric for somebody attracted to soil administration and agriculture in Easter Europe, from scholars to coverage makers and is usually of specific curiosity for researchers within the field.
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2002). 25 % of nitrogen holding ability. The process of transformation of organic residues is accompanied by nitrogen enrichment of humic substances shown by the ratio C/N 10-12 which means high rates. In the humus composition 100 % of humic acids (Ch) are bound with calcium (Petrova and Shishkov 2001). The profile of the Bulgarian calcareous chernozems is not differentiated in clay and sesquioxides distribution. Content of Al2O3 is two times higher than Fe2O3, the content of MgO and K2O is much higher than CaO.
4 Agroecological regions on the territory of Bulgaria (Yolevski et al. 1980) Agroecological regions of Chernozems Agroecological regions of gray-brown pseudopodzolic forest soils (Planosols) Agroecological regions of Cinnamonic forest soils (Chromic luvisols) I1 Zlatenrogski-Novoselski I2 Lomsko-Svishtovski III1 Berkovski V1 Petrichko-Sandanski I3 Novopazarski III2 Botevgradsko-Gabrovski V2 Gotzedelchevski I4 Kardamsko-Durankulashki III3 Elensko-Smyadovski I5 Vidinsko-Beloslatinski I6 Plevensko-Pavlikenski I7 Rusensko-Silistrenski I8 Tervelski Agroecolgical regions of Vertisols and Cinnamonic forest soils (Vertisols and Chromic Luvisols) Razlojki Karjaliiski V5 Topolovgradsko-Fakiiski V6 Malkotarnovski Agroecological regions of Brown forest soils (Cambisols) I9 Dobrichki IV1 Sofiisko-Pernishki I10 Balchishki IV2 Kiustendilski I11 Provadiiski Agroecological regions of gray-brown forest soils (Haplic luvisols) V3 V4 VI1 Petrohanski IV3 Karlovsko-Kazanlashki VI2 Srednostaroplaninski IV4 Sungurkarski VI3 Transko-Osogovski IV5 Srednogorski and VI4 Ograzhdenski Rodopski lowlands VI5 Samokovsko- VI6 Rilo-Pirinski Rodopski II1 Kulsko-Belogradchishki IV6 Novozagosrki II2 Montansko-Lukovitski IV7 Slivensko-Straldjalski II3 Loveshki IV8 Pazardjisjko-Plovdivski VI7 II4 Popovsko-Razgradski IV9 Chirpansko-Yablanski II5 Isperihski IV10 Haskovski Agroecological regions of Mountainmeadow soils II6 Mezdrensko-Sevlievski IV11 Karnobatski-Bourgaski II7 Velikotarnovski-Preslavski IV12 Grudovsko-Sozopolski II8 Avrenski form the forest communities and build natural vegetation.
The pattern of the horizon sequence is: Ak(Apk)–(Ak)– ABk–BCk–Ck. Metamorphic B horizon is not recognized in the profile. Usually the texture is silt loam. 2 and Fig. 8). 3 and Fig. 9). P \0:01 ¼ \0:001þ Water stable aggregates (with size 1–3 mm) are about 80 %. Aggregates are characterized by high internal and external porosity. 3 Field water capacity is 64 % of the total porosity and is a result of good aeration. Calcareous chernozems have high water-holding capacity and are characterized by high rates of water percolation.