Human Geography

Download War and Memory in Lebanon by Sune Haugbolle PDF

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By Sune Haugbolle

From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon persisted some of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the 20 th century. Sune Haugbolle's well timed and sometimes poignant ebook chronicles the conflict over principles that emerged from the wreckage of that struggle. whereas the Lebanese nation inspired forgetfulness and political events created sectarian interpretations of the warfare via cults of lifeless leaders, intellectuals and activists - encouraged by way of the instance of fact and reconciliation events in numerous elements of the realm - complicated the concept confronting and remembering the battle used to be priceless for political and cultural renewal. via an research of alternative cultural productions - media, paintings, literature, movie, posters, and structure - the writer exhibits how the recollection and reconstruction of political and sectarian violence that came about throughout the conflict have helped in Lebanon's therapeutic procedure. He additionally indicates how a willingness to confront the previous encouraged the preferred rebellion in Lebanon after the assassination of top Minister Rafiq Hariri.

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The fractured public sphere during the war created an ambiguous foundation for postwar nationalism, where memories of fraternity and sectarian separation blended, competed and were manipulated by social and political actors. Such ambiguity shaped memories and interactions in postwar Lebanon and added to the sense of being intimate strangers, moulded by the same historical tragedy but at the same time deeply wary of one another. However, ambiguous social identities and unsettled politics are not just 3 4 This term, coined by James Ferguson (1999) in his study of the Zambian copper belt, refers to the fact that the populations in a large number of postcolonial states hit by steady economic decline in the late twentieth century increasingly felt that, for them, modernity, perhaps irretrievably, ended some time ago.

Asad’s long-term policy, to impose a solution to the war that would secure enduring Syrian control over Lebanese affairs, became more apparent after 1985 with the so-called Tripartite Accord signed by the major militias, including a breakaway fraction of the Lebanese Forces (LF). The war ended when Syria broke the last resistance to a Syrian peace and postwar order in Lebanon (Kassir 2000). In conclusion, the PLO and Israeli policies largely failed while Syria succeeded in establishing hegemony over Lebanon.

Political pluralism was perfectly suited as a political manifestation of this idea, and so, to regulate their relationship with one another peacefully and democratically, the sects were made to engage in a system of power sharing through proportionate representation. Multiconfessional assemblies had their roots in the mutasarrifiya, but unlike the governorate of Mount Lebanon from 1860 to 1918, the Republic of Lebanon in 1943 included a sizeable number of Shiite Muslims. In accordance with a national census from 1932, each group was allocated a specific number of seats in parliament, and each of the large confessions was given the privilege of specific important positions.

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