Download Writing Science by M.A.K. Halliday, J. R. Martin PDF
By M.A.K. Halliday, J. R. Martin
This ebook is set using language within the technological know-how school room. It discusses the evolution of medical discourse for studying in secondary faculties, and examines the shape and serve as of language throughout quite a few degrees together with lexiogrammar, discourse semantics, check in, style and beliefs. specific awareness is paid to how this data is imparted. it will likely be of specific curiosity to educators concerned with linguistics and/or technology curriculum and lecturers of English for distinct and educational purposes.; it really is aimed toward lecturers of undergraduates in technological know-how and literacy, linguists educating in English for certain and educational reasons and scholars in greater schooling with an curiosity in technology and literacy.
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One way to exemplify these two levels of linguistic abstraction is to consider the difference between an acronym and a technical term. Both acronyms and technical terms are commonly used in scientific discourse to condense information. Acronyms compact information on the expression ‘plane’; earlier for example we introduced the acronym SFL in order to avoid having to spell out s-y-s-t-e-m-i-c f-u-n-c-t-io-n-a-l l-i-n-g-u-i-s-t-i-c-s each time we mentioned it in this introduction. ’ Once defined, the technical term can be assumed in place of the more cumbersome commonsense wording; equally important, the technical term participates in an uncommonsense set of oppositions involving coelomates, sponges, corals and their allies—a precise set of values that can only be construed through the appropriate technical terms.
The second instance is metaphorical with respect to the first, in the same way that the shift from imagination to painted scenes and pageants of the brain (from Abraham Cowley, quoted by Peter Medawar, 1984 in Pluto’s Republic, p. 48) is metaphorical. Here, ‘the faculty of producing mental images’ is first represented ‘literally’ as imagination and then re-represented as pageants which literally represents ‘elaborate colourful parades’; this is metaphor in its regular, lexical sense. In grammatical metaphor, instead of a lexical transformation (of one word to another) the transformation is in the grammar—from one class to another, with the word (here the lexical item refract-) remaining the same.
It holds reality still, to be kept under observation and experimented with; and in so doing, interprets it not as changing with time (as the grammar of clauses interprets it) but as persisting—or rather, persistence—through time, which is the mode of being of a noun. This is a very powerful kind of grammar, and it has tended to take over and become a norm. The English that is written by adults, in most present-day genres, is highly nominalized in just this way. Discourse of this sort is probably familiar to all of us: Key responsibilities will be the investment of all domestic equity portfolios for the division and contribution to the development of investment strategy.